Enzotska pneumonia svinja ili Gripa prasadi

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geomycin retard Valja reći da uz osnovnog uzročnika razvoju bolesti pridonose i neki drugi mikroorganizmi kao: Pasteurella multocida, Corynebacterium pyogenes itd. Osnovni izvori infekcije su bolesne životinje i životinje koje su nakon pobolijevanja ostale kliconoše. Infekt se širi aerogeno (zrakom). U nezaražene uzgoje bolest se unosi kliconošama, a širenju bolesti pogoduje nekontrolirani nakup prasadi iz različitih uzgoja. Obično se inficira sasvim mlada prasad od matere kliconoše ili od susjedne krmače. Vrijeme inkubacije je od deset dana do više mjeseci. U početku bolesti javljaju se blagi simptomi kao povišena temperatura, neveselost, gubitak apetita. Kasnije primjećujemo učestalo disanje, kihanje, suh kašalj, a kasnije vlažan i bolan. U toku bolesti može se javiti i proljev, te osip na koži. Bolesna prasad slabije iskorištava hranu i slabije prirašta, pa se tov takve prasadi može produžiti za mjesec dana. Uginuće kod ove bolesti kreće se od 5 do 20 %, a ponekad i više. Da bi se bolest sa sigurnošću utvrdila, potrebna je laboratorijska dijagnostika. Pri liječenju je važno spriječiti sekundarne infekcije drugim mikroorganizmima, dok na primarnog uzročnika djeluje tiamulin, tilozin, spiramicin, linkomicin i tetraciklin. Troškovi liječenja mogu biti vrlo veliki. Danas postoje vakcine kojima se bolest pravovremenom vakcinacijom može spriječiti.

Da stvari nisu tako jednostavne govore slučajevi tzv. “stajskih zaraza”, gdje se pojedina infekcija uvuče u objekat za vrijeme tova, te se niti uz najveće napore ne može iskorijeniti, a pri tome nanosi velike štete.
jedno od temeljnih načela pri uzgoju je i “sve unutra – sve van”. Znači, ne dozvolite da se objekti nadopunjavaju, da se dva ili više tova preklapaju, pa da objekat praktički nikada i nije prazan. Jer i to je jedno od načela – odmor objekta uz temeljito čišćenje, pranje i dezinfekciju. Potrebno je također zadovoljiti barem minimum zoohigijenskih normi vezanih uz izgnojavanje, ventilaciju, izolaciju itd…
Ako se sve navedeno provodi, a hrana je kvalitetna i izbalansirana, znatno možemo smanjiti pojavu bolesti.

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Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isa mycoplasma that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine. It damages the cilia in the airwaysof the pig, and thus compromises one of the pig’s most effectivemechanical barriers against invading pathogens(disease-causing agents). Cilia are small, hair-likeprojections that line the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.

Because of this effect on the cilia, M. hyopneumoniaecan weaken the pig’s immune (disease defense)system, encouraging secondary infections that lead to seriousrespiratory diseases such as enzootic pneumonia.

Pathology describesanatomic or functional manifestations of disease. In the absenceof other pathogens, M. hyopneumoniae may or may notcause clinical signs (observed, i.e.,identifiable signs). Most descriptions of manifestations ofM. hyopneumoniae are actually descriptions of enzootic(affecting animals of a specific geographic area) pneumonia(also called mycoplasmal pneumonia).

Often the first noticeable clinical sign of M. hyopneumoniaeis, in fact, the development of a secondary infection. Signsof enzootic pneumonia include a nonproductive cough(a cough that does not clear infected material from the lungs),depressed feed intake, and declining animal performance. Confirmationof a diagnosis of M. hyopneumoniae is accomplishedthrough serological (related to blood) tests, postmortem(after death) examinations or microscopic histological(related to the study of tissue structure) examinations of lungtissue.

Estimates of the incidence of M. hyopneumoniae infection in swine range from 25 to 93% of swine worldwide.It is safe to say that the mycoplasma are ubiquitous(found everywhere).
The etiology of a disease describesits cause or transmission as determined by medical diagnosis.M. hyopneumoniae is transmitted through direct contactbetween pigs. The mycoplasma are transmitted primarily by nose-to-nosecontact. The prevailing theory is that direct contact with respiratorytract secretions from infected swine allows transfer of the pathogen.Aerosol transmission is also possible, but opinions differ asto its importance.

Maintaining distance between infected and non-infectedswine seems logical to reduce disease occurence. A distance in excess of 2.4 km (1.5 miles)has been suggested as a management practice. However, there havebeen cases of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) herds developing enzootic pneumonia withoutthe introduction of carrier swine(swine carrying the disease, but not showing clinical signs).Some researchers say aerosol transmission is of little practicalconcern, but others point out that coughing pigs can project theorganisms many meters, and that this is the probable explanationfor farm-to-farm disease transmission.

More common routes of infection are: carrier swineintroduced into a herd, sow-to-piglet transfer and transfer amongpenmates. Humans are not subject to M. hyopneumoniaeinfection since the organism does not replicate in humans.

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